Innovations in Chronic Pain Therapeutics
Studies by others have suggested a correlation between testosterone and pain. For example, the high serum levels of testosterone that are normally present during pregnancy (Bammann 1980) occur when there is also a high threshold for pain during pregnancy as shown in the preclinical rodent (Gintzler 1980).
Second, it has been shown that the incidence of fibromyalgia increases with age for both men and women (Wolfe 1995), and it is well known that testosterone serum levels slowly decrease over time as people age.
Another example that more directly suggests a “cause and effect” relationship between higher serum levels of testosterone and a lower risk of pain is supported by the incidence of pain in male-to-female vs female-to-male transgender individuals who were pharmacologically induced to have lower or higher testosterone levels, respectively (Aloisi 2007).
Consistent with all of these findings, it has been shown that fibromyalgia patients (vs normal individuals) have lower serum levels of testosterone (Dessein 1999).
Lastly, recent brain imaging studies in women taking the combined oral contraceptive pill (Vincent 2013) supported the relationship between testosterone serum levels and pain processing by demonstrating an engagement of descending inhibitory pain pathways for women in a high-normal testosterone state, whereas the estrogen status did not show a significant correlation.
White Mountain Pharma’s feasibility studies are the first to prospectively test a cause-and-effect relationship between low testosterone and chronic pain conditions within the clinic. White Mountain Pharma is continuing to develop its testosterone gel for chronic pain conditions.
The following guidance for treating deficient women with testosterone is provided by experts in their respective fields: The Endocrine Society, The North American Menopause Society, and a group of experts who developed the Princeton Consensus Statement on female androgen insufficiency.
Wierman ME, Arlt W, Basson R, Davis SR, Miller KK, Murad MH, et al. Androgen therapy in women: a reappraisal: an endocrine society clinical practice guideline. The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism. 2014;99:3489-510.
North American Menopause Society. The role of testosterone therapy in postmenopausal women: position statement of The North American Menopause Society. Menopause (New York, NY). 2005;12:497-511.
Bachmann G, Bancroft J, Braunstein G, Burger H, Davis S, Dennerstein L, et al. Female androgen insufficiency: the Princeton consensus statement on definition, classification, and assessment. Fertil Steril. 2002;77:660-5.
The following two citations are useful discussions by known experts about the role of stress-induced states that relate to pain and a patient’s lack of feeling of well being. Stress is important because it can induce altered state of distress which is known to be difficult to treat and resolve. The development of White Mountain Pharma’s unique testosterone therapeutic positions WMP to address states of stress and distress in novel ways.
The end of stress as we know it. McEwen, Joseph Henry Press, Washington, DC 2002
The balance within: The science connecting health and emotions. Sternberg, McMillan Press 2001